Laboratory and analytical work of the “Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry named after A.N. SOKOLOVSKY “
NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER
“INSTITUTE OF SOIL RESEARCH AND AGROCHEMISTRY named after AN SOKOLOVSKY”
Organic Fertilizers and Humus Laboratory
based on the results of laboratory and analytical work
regarding the use of ash after incineration of poultry manure
in the agricultural sector
Bird droppings and ash after burning.
Basic methods of work:
Laboratory and analytical studies were carried out in the certified laboratory of organic fertilizers and humus of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry named after A.N. Sokolovsky “.
OBTAINED RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
The agrochemical composition of ash after burning poultry manure is presented in Table 1.
Agrochemical characteristics of ash
The burning of dry chicken manure (drying oven at a temperature of 105 ° C) was carried out in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 700 ° C.
The original sample of chicken manure contains 46.4% dry matter, which consists of 17% ash and 83% organic matter. The ash contains 0.58% of total carbon or 5.8 kg per 1 ton.
From 1 ton of ash obtained after burning chicken manure, an average of 129 kg of total phosphorus, 138.6 kg of total potassium, 39.3 kg of calcium, 7.1 kg of magnesium can be introduced into the soil, the amount of RK is 267.6 kg / t, the sum of calcium and magnesium is 46.4 kg / t. No total nitrogen was found in the ash. The reaction of the medium is alkaline – pH 12.6. In addition, from 1 ton of ash, the following can be added to the soil: 12.5 g of iron, 1 g of copper, 0.1 g of cobalt, 4.7 g of manganese, 3.8 g of zinc. There are no heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel) in the ash composition.
For reference: with 1 ton of cattle manure 75% humidity (conventional standard), 5 kg of nitrogen is introduced, 2.5 kg phosphorus and 6 kg potassium, for a total of 13.5 kg NPK.
Ash after burning poultry manure can be considered as phosphorus-potassium-calcium fertilizer. The main technological difficulty when applied on large areas is the physical state of the ash, i.e. dusty state. Such difficulties are partially eliminated when using (locally or randomly) ash on small areas and in the private sector (for reference: more than 90% of vegetable, fruit and berry, etc. products are produced there)
Ash is used to neutralize the increased acidity of the soil. On acidic soils, it creates favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants, the activity of soil microflora, especially nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thereby improving the nitrogen nutrition of plants.
Do not mix ash long before application with ammoniacal nitrogen fertilizers, so as not to cause loss of ammonia. It can be added to superphosphate, but not more than 8% by weight of superphosphate, otherwise its properties deteriorate. Ash should not be mixed with other phosphorus fertilizers, and in this particular case it is not necessary, since the ash after burning the manure contains a high phosphorus content.
In addition, potassium and phosphorus in ash are in a form readily available to plants. On developed and well-cultivated soils, the ash lasts two years and about 4 years on peaty soils. Ash is best applied in spring on peaty and sandy soils, and on clay and loamy soils – in autumn. How to correctly apply ash to the soil? It cannot be mixed with nitrogen mineral fertilizers, since half of the nitrogen is lost, as well as with manure and poultry droppings. Ash efficiency increases when applied with peat, humus and compost. First, you need to scatter the ash on the surface of the soil and repair it with appropriate tools. After that, apply high-quality conditioned organic fertilizers and then plow (dig up) the soil. In such a sequence, plants assimilate phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and all trace elements well. About 10 kg of ash must be added to a hundred square meters. When there is little ash, it is better to apply it to the furrows, rows or holes before sowing seeds or planting seedlings, mixing it well with the soil.
Ash helps to fight plant diseases and pests. So, she saves cabbage from defeat by a black leg and keel. A three-day infusion of ash (3 kg per 10 liters of water) frees plants from aphids, sawflies and caterpillars. Helps fight cruciferous flea (dusting early in the morning after dew). Ash is also good as top dressing. Dissolving 1 glass of ash in 10 liters of water, you can use this amount of solution per 1 sq.m. Top dressing should be alternated with solutions of bird droppings or mullein containing nitrogen. Ash infusion can be used to treat pepper and tomato seeds. To do this, dissolve 1 tablespoon of ash in 0.5 liters of water and insist for three days, the solution is drained, and the seeds are soaked for 12 hours. Ash has one more advantage: it does not contain chlorine, therefore it is used for plants sensitive to its excess – potatoes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, grapes. Ash has one more advantage: it does not contain chlorine, therefore it is used for plants sensitive to eAshes under planted plants can be applied both in spring and autumn, it is also used for fertilizing. On sandy soils, ash is applied in spring (leaching is possible in autumn). For potatoes, beets, cucumbers, cabbage, it is advisable to bring ash into the holes when planting. Its effectiveness is enhanced when introduced together with peat, humus, compost. Good results are obtained by a mixture of ash and peat (1: 1), introduced into the holes before planting, 0.5 cups each. Ash application rate for row spacing 60 – 100 g per sq. m of excess – potatoes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, grapes….
Ash is successfully used for fertilizing both dry before rain or watering, and dissolved with water (50 – 100 g per 10 l of water). One plant requires 0.5 liters of solution.
Ash can be added to compost instead of lime in the amount of 3 – 6% by weight of the compostable material.
A specific adjustment of the dose of ash application should be made taking into account soil conditions (soil-agrochemical survey) and the agricultural crop for which it is planned to apply. The application doses should be close to the optimal ones, calculated taking into account the removal of nutrients by the planned yield and the utilization rate of agricultural nutrients. cultures.